Photorealistic versus procedural texturing of the 3D buildings in virtual smart cities

Document Type : Original Article


1 Faculty of Multimedia, Tabriz Islamic Art University, Iran

2 3D GIS Research Lab, Dept. of Geoinformation, Faculty of Geoinformation & Real Estate, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, 81310 Skudai, Johor, Malaysia.

3 Faculty of Photogrammetry and Geoinformatics Stuttgart University of Applied science



This paper discusses different methods of texturing techniques such as photorealistic and procedural texturing e.g., Dynamic Pulse Function (DPF). Based on a predefined XML schema, an unlimited number of layers can be created for windows, doors, and backgrounds. The system can use many textures for a single layer to increase the Level of Realism (LoR) in 3D virtual models. The advantage of this technique is the geospatial database of each layer in XML schema. It can include the name of the layer, width, height, geometry, and starting point of the object in the layer with respect to the upper-left corner of the façade. The concept behind DPF, is to use logical operations to project the texture on the background image which is dynamically proportional to real geometry. The process of projection is based on two vertical and horizontal dynamic pulses starting from the upper-left corner of the background in the down and right directions respectively. The logical one/zero on the intersections of two vertical and horizontal dynamic pulses projects/does not project the texture on the background image. Orthogonal and rectified perpendicular symmetric photos of the 3D objects that are proportional to the real façade geometry were utilized for the generation of the output frame for DPF. This produces a very high quality and small data size of output image compared with the photorealistic texturing method. Complex geometries such as coconut or palm trees can be designed as a single implicit geometry and utilized in the CityGML environment via URL to deal with rendering and lagging problems of visualization. In the current work, the texture of the façade was created based on preprocessed procedural DPF technique and the output image was utilized in 3D modeling as a texture.